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Mitosis/Meiosis

Mitosis/Meiosis
Cellular Level
Mitosis - overview

One copy of each duplicated chromosome/DNA double helix distributed to daughter cells. See Replication.

Genotype is faithfully duplicated and transmitted to daughter cells.

In the nucleus of eukaryotes; in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes.

Prior to mitosis

Replication of each chromosome to form sister chromatids

Information encoded in each chromosome is faithfullly duplicated

In the nucleus of eukaryotes; in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes

Mitosis

Separation of sister chromatids into different daughter cells

One set of genetic information distributed to each daughter cell

In the nucleus of eukaryotes; in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes

Meiosis - overview

Each chromosome pair* is halved independently of the others.

*In the case of higher ploidy, there will be more than two chromosomes

Genetic information is halved. The alleles for each trait are separated, assuring one member of each pair in daughter cells.

Occurs in the nucleus of eukaryotes.

Prior to meiosis I

Replication of each chromosome = sister chromatids

Information encoded in each chromosomes is faithfully duplicated

Occurs in the nucleus of eukaryotes.

Metaphase I

Doubled homologs pair up. Non-sister chromatids exchange material.

Information swapped between homologs = exchange between non-sister chromatids.

Occurs in the nucleus of eukaryotes.

Completion of meiosis I

Homologs of each pair are separated.

2N --> 1N; Diploid to haploid

Occurs in the nucleus of eukaryotes.

Meiosis II
 

One copy of genetic information in each daughter cell 1N --> 1N

 
Meiosis II

Sister chromatids separate into different daughter cells.

 

Occurs in the nucleus of eukaryotes.